Saturday, April 21, 2018
Friday, April 20, 2018
The historic town hall (Rathaus) of Osnabrück, Germany was built in the late Gothic style from 1487 to 1512. It is one of Osnabrück’s most important buildings and emblems and continues to be used as the city’s town hall today. The Treaty of Westphalia was negotiated and signed by the combatants of the Thirty Years’ War at the town halls of Osnabrück and Münster in 1648.
Saturday, April 14, 2018
Saturday, April 7, 2018
Wednesday, March 28, 2018
Sunday, March 18, 2018
Saturday, March 17, 2018
Jürgen Habermas (/ˈjɜːrɡən, ˈjʊərɡən ˈhɑːbərmɑːs/; German: [ˈjʏrɡn̩ ˈhaːbɐmaːs]; born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism. He is perhaps best known for his theories on communicative rationality and the public sphere. In 2014, Prospect readers chose Habermas as one of their favorites among the "world's leading thinkers."
Associated with the Frankfurt School, Habermas's work focuses on the foundations of social theory and epistemology, the analysis of advanced capitalistic societies and democracy, the rule of law in a critical social-evolutionary context, and contemporary politics, particularly German politics. Habermas's theoretical system is devoted to revealing the possibility of reason, emancipation, and rational-critical communication latent in modern institutions and in the human capacity to deliberate and pursue rational interests. Habermas is known for his work on the concept of modernity, particularly with respect to the discussions of rationalization originally set forth by Max Weber. He has been influenced by American pragmatism, action theory, and even poststructuralism.
Saturday, February 24, 2018
Friday, January 26, 2018
Friday, December 29, 2017
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (/ˈsɑːrtrə/; French: [saʁtʁ]; 21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology, and one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism. His work has also influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, and literary studies, and continues to influence these disciplines.
Sartre was also noted for his open relationship with prominent feminist and fellow existentialist philosopher and writer Simone de Beauvoir. Together, Sartre and de Beauvoir challenged the cultural and social assumptions and expectations of their upbringings, which they considered bourgeois, in both lifestyles and thought. The conflict between oppressive, spiritually destructive conformity (mauvaise foi, literally, "bad faith") and an "authentic" way of "being" became the dominant theme of Sartre's early work, a theme embodied in his principal philosophical work Being and Nothingness (L'Être et le Néant, 1943). Sartre's introduction to his philosophy is his work Existentialism and Humanism (L'existentialisme est un humanisme, 1946), originally presented as a lecture.
He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature but refused it, saying that he always declined official honors and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution".
Sunday, November 26, 2017
Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller (German: [ˈniːmœlɐ]; 14 January 1892 – 6 March 1984) was a German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor. He is best known for a widely-paraphrased statement which he made in different versions, one of which is "First they came for the Socialists, and I did not speak out because I was not a Socialist. ... Then they came for me and there was no one left to speak for me."
He was a national conservative and initially a supporter of Adolf Hitler, but he became one of the founders of the Confessing Church, which opposed the Nazification of German Protestant churches. He vehemently opposed the Nazis' Aryan Paragraph but made remarks about Jews that some scholars have called antisemitic. For his opposition to the Nazis' state control of the churches, Niemöller was imprisoned in Sachsenhausen and Dachau concentration camps from 1938 to 1945. He narrowly escaped execution. After his imprisonment, he expressed his deep regret about not having done enough to help the victims of the Nazis. He turned away from his earlier nationalistic beliefs and was one of the initiators of the Stuttgart Declaration of Guilt. From the 1950s on, he was a vocal pacifist and anti-war activist, and vice-chair of War Resisters' International from 1966 to 1972. He met with Ho Chi Minh during the Vietnam War and was a committed campaigner for nuclear disarmament.
Year of Production: 2015
Country of Production: Tunisia
Film-producers: Goethe Institut, Institut Français
Script: Mathias 'Deve' Sitbon (France), Jean Ndjock (Cameroon), Oussama Zikri (Tunisia).
Animation: Talal Nayer (Sudan), Mathias 'Deve' Sitbon (France)
Coloring: Salma Bouthelja (Tunisia), Oussama Farj (Tunisia), Yannick Bibangue (Cameroon), Talal Nayer (Sudan)
Sound: Jean Ndjock (Cameroon), Yannick Bibangue (Cameroon)
Montage and film editing: Jean Ndjock (Cameroon)
Prizes: Prize of Franco-Allemand contest of short films – Tunisia – (October 2015).
Salahaddeen Salem Hamadah is a Sudanese cartoonists and satire writer. Professionally he had known as Salah Hamadah (صلاح حمادة in Arabic). Hamadah had born in 1960 in Ruofaa, Aljazzera; a small city in the central of Sudan Republic. Hamadah spent his childhood partly Salah lived in Al Qadarif, but he returned back to his birthplace after his father Salem Hamadah passed away tragically in a traffic accident.
Salah Hamadah attended Faculty of Fine Art in Sudan University of Science and Technology in 1976. Hamadah was a classmate for famous cartoonist Mounem Hamzah (منعم حمزة in Arabic). Both artists were preparing themselves to be painters, but the future was holding to other plans: after their graduation from the class 1980, they will be the leading cartoonists in their generations.
In 1981; as a fresh graduator Hamadah became an employer for the Ministry of Labor. He worked in the Section of Designing and Architecture until 1988. In parallel, he was working actively in his journalistic career as a cartoonist. The value of Hamadah isn’t just about his extraordinary sense of humor, but also because he bringing a new form of cartooning and satire into the Sudanese journalism. He was mixing both categories smoothly. Hamadah was editor of a ¼ daily page entitled Minn Ghair Za’all (من غير زعل in Arabic); or (Without Anger). Hamadah gets popularity by his joyful commentary of the reader of al-Seyasa newspaper (السياسة in Arabic). The cumulative outcome of his daily cartoons and writings was a book had published in 1988; a book holds the same title of his famous corner.
Politically; the 1980’s was a transitional period, but it was also a turning point for the Sudanese cartoonists: after the Uprising of April 1985, new artists appeared in the era of new democracy like Salah Hamadah who was an iconic figure and benchmark for Sudanese journalism. That period of the 1980’s was one of the golden ears for Sudanese cartoonists; the Sudanese Third Democracy ( الديموقراطية السودانية الثالثة in Arabic) came after fall of the dictator Gaafar Nimeiry (جعفر نميري in Arabic) in 1985, but the Coup d'état of the Islamic National Front (الجبهة القومية الإسلامية in Arabic) – currently is the National Congress (المؤتمر الوطني in Arabic) – the country changed dramatically; a few days later the Islamists opened countless detention centers where many civilians were tortured and killed. All the newspapers were closed and many cartoonists lost their jobs. Some of them retired, some emigrated, and the rest are working in miserable conditions. The new military government established its newspapers and attracted new artists; Salah Hamadah and the cartoonists of the older generations reduced their activity for a while.
1994 was a special year to the Sudanese cartooning movement after the appearance of Nabbedh al-Karicatir ( نبض الكاريكاتير in Arabic). The name means "Pulse of Caricature", and it was truly illustrated its experience because the newspaper was like resurrection cartoon movement in Sudan; individually and collectively. Nabbedh al-Karicatir - after the disappearance of the newspapers of the Third Democracy - was the only space for free speech after the coup. Mounem Hamzah was first editor-in-chief Nabbedh al-Karicatir; he structured the newspaper to be ranked No.1 as the best-selling newspaper in Sudan newspaper. Salah Hamadah was a co-founder of Nabbedh al-Karicatir that became a congregation of dozens of talented cartoonists in Sudan.
Salah Hamadah occupied the position of editing manager of Akhbar al-Mugtama’a newspaper (أخبار المجتمع in Arabic). Hamadah kept editing his famous corner Minn Ghair Za’all in many publication like al-Ayam ( الأيام in Arabic), al-Sahafa (الصحافة in Arabic), Akher Khaber (آخر خبر in Arabic), A’alamm al-Komedia (عالم الكوميديا in Arabic) and a lastly he was working for al-Watan (الوطن in Arabic) until his sudden death by heart-attack in 31/3/2009 in age of 49.